Tag Archives: Leonid Brezhnev

The Space Race: to go boldly where no one has gone boldly before.

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Apollo 11 crew: Armstrong, Collins and Aldrin. (Author: NASA; Source: here)

‘When the eagle landed on the moon, I was speechless overwhelmed, like most of the world. Couldn’t say a word. I think all I said was, “Wow! Jeez!” Not exactly immortal. Well, I was nothing if not human.’ Walter Cronkite, CBS anchor during the Moon landing in 1969

The Space Race: to go boldly where no one has gone boldly before.

In May, 1961, just after the fiasco at the Bay of Pigs in Cuba which had seen the humiliation of the USA’s attempts to oust Fidel Castro, John F. Kennedy, President of the USA, made a rather important announcement. He declared that, ‘I believe that this nation should commit itself to achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the moon and returning him safely to the Earth’. In doing this, Kennedy was taking a huge gamble because the USA was languishing far behind the USSR in the Space Race at the time, as it had done since 1957 and would do throughout nearly all of the 1960s. It is fair to say that the only part of the race which the USA did win was that last and most prestigious event of 20th July, 1969, when the news that, ‘The Eagle has landed’, was heard all over the earth. In his speech which was requesting funds for the project at the start of the decade, JFK firmly placed the ‘Space Race’ in the broader context of the Cold War. His speech was made just as Alan Shepherd had become the first US astronaut to go into space but this was a relatively short mission which fell well short of matching the feat of the Soviet Cosmonaut, Yuri Gagarin, who had orbited the earth in April of that same year. To quote Kennedy at some length, he said:

“If we are to win the battle that is now going on around the world between freedom and tyranny, the dramatic achievements in space which occurred in recent weeks should have made clear to us all, as did the Sputnik in 1957, the impact of this adventure on the minds of men everywhere, who are attempting to make a determination of which road they should take.

Recognizing the head start obtained by the Soviets with their large rocket engines, which gives them many months of lead-time, and recognizing the likelihood that they will exploit this lead for some time to come in still more impressive successes, we nevertheless are required to make new efforts on our own. For while we cannot guarantee that we shall one day be first, we can guarantee that any failure to make this effort will be our last. We take an additional risk by making it in full view of the world, but as shown by the feat of astronaut Shepherd, this very risk enhances our stature when we are successful. But this is not merely a race. Space is open to us now; and our eagerness to share its meaning is not governed by the efforts of others. We go into space because whatever mankind must undertake, free men must fully share.

I believe that this nation should commit itself to achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the Moon and returning him safely to the Earth. No single space project in this period will be more impressive to mankind, or more important for the long-range exploration of space; and none will be so difficult or expensive to accomplish.

It is a most important decision that we must make as a nation. But all of you have lived through the last four years and have seen the significance of space and the adventures in space, and no one can predict with certainty what the ultimate meaning will be of mastery of space.”

JFK later said, “…we choose to go to the moon in this decade and do the other things, not because they are easy, but because they are hard, because that goal will serve to organize and measure the best of our energies and skills, because that challenge is one that we are willing to accept, one we are unwilling to postpone, and one which we intend to win, and the others, too.”

The significance of the Cold War is clear in the language used here: the USA’s role as leader of the ‘free world’, the significance of the lead obtained by the USSR and the potential glamour from landing on the moon are some of the points to note. The Space Race of the sixties was played out against the backdrop of many important events and struggles including the Bay of Pigs Fiasco and the Cuban Missile Crisis, Kennedy’s assassination, Khrushchev’s replacement by Leonid Brezhnev, the Civil Rights Movement and the Vietnam War. The Space Race was at the cutting edge of the ideological battle of the age and it was highly symbolic in the battle for ‘hearts and minds’,  as well as the battle for victory in terms of technological ability and individual courage. In this it was an essential part of ‘peaceful coexistence’, the new phase of the Cold War which had been initiated by Nikita Khrushchev in 1956.

In a meaningful sense, the Space Race became a ‘live’ issue on 4th October, 1957. A rocket was launched from Kazakhstan in the USSR and sometime later a simple, ‘……beep……..beep………beep……’ was heard on radios across the world. ‘Sputnik’ (meaning ‘Travelling Companion’ or ‘Fellow Traveller’), had been launched, the first satellite, and it was orbiting the earth. The Soviet Union had taken the first step into space, developing rockets with power never considered possible before. Sputnik had a huge impact on the West, and the USA in particular, as Moscow and Communism seemed to be moving ahead of the West in leaps and bounds. A country which just thirty years earlier had effectively been a backward, peasant economy had gone into space ahead of the developed countries of the capitalist world and people were frightened of what the future might hold. If they had achieved such progress in three decades, and after suffering so badly in WWII, what might they achieve by the end of the century?  Amongst the leaders of Communism in Moscow and the other capitals of Eastern Europe, the experience of putting a satellite into space  gave a massive boost to confidence and self-belief. The belief that the USSR was moving ahead of the USA in technology and performance during the 1950s was picked up in the claim of a ‘missile gap’ in favour of the Communists, a key area of concern to both sides in considering the balance of power. As Khrushchev rejoiced in the success of Sputnik, dark clouds gathered around Dwight D. Eisenhower, the Republican President of the USA and serious questions began to be asked about his policies and his style.

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Sputnik – 1. If you see one today, it will be a copy as the original burnt up on 4th January, 1958, after travelling 60 million km in three months. (Author: Unknown; Source: here)

Following on from Sputnik, both sides tried to push forward with their rocket development and other aspects of the Space Race. At each point, the headlines went in favour of the Soviet Union. One particularly significant moment came with the USA’s attempt to respond to Sputnik by launching a tiny satellite on a Vanguard rocket in December, 1957. The cameras were present to record what was supposed to be the start of the USA’s fightback – but instead they filmed a humiliation. Shown live on TV, the rocket exploded on the launch pad, leading to one of the great headlines of the decade: ‘Oh, What a Flopnik’. Things looked bad and things were actually getting worse for the West thanks to a Russian dog – but better thanks to a former Nazi scientist.

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The explosion of the Vanguard TV3 in  December, 1957, was a source of great embarrassment in Washington. (Author: US Navy; Source: here)

In Moscow, Nikita Khrushchev, leader of the Soviet Union, was delighted by the success of Sputnik but he wanted something even more dramatic to mark the 40th anniversary of the ‘Russian Revolution’. The result of this was that the decision was taken to send a dog into space and so it was that ‘Laika’, a stray mongrel from the streets of Moscow, became famous around the globe. She was launched on Sputnik 2 on 3rd November, 1957. The power of the propaganda was more than enough to justify the decision, as it was an extraordinary sign of how far the USSR had come in four decades of Communist rule. Laika almost certainly died from overheating on the day of the launch, as there had been no food or drink in her capsule for several days. It was known that she would die anyway as the technology for re-entry had not been developed at that point. The purpose of the flight (and the subsequent tests on other animals) was to see if people could survive a launch and weightlessness as well as the impact on the body. In doing this, Laika was a ‘heroine’ who paved the way for many future developments. Maybe she would have been delighted to have found her face on a stamp and a statue made in her honour although she certainly suffered for those honours.

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Laika – the first dog in space. Rarely has such a cute looking mongrel dominated the news headlines around the world. (Author: Unknown; Source: here)

In 1958, President Eisenhower took a momentous decision in an attempt to show the USA’s commitment to joining in the Space Race. He set up NASA, the ‘National Aeronautics and Space Administration’, which was charged with developing the research, technology, science and training needed to match the achievements of the Soviet programme. NASA would eventually succeed but in the early years, the USSR generally remained ahead of the Americans, as they put several more dogs into space. But the Americans did launch more powerful and reliable rockets, taking various monkeys into space in 1958 and 1959, the most famous of which was called Baker, who survived the flight, returned to earth and lived until 1984. If only he could have talked…

NASA actually had something to work with thanks largely to a man called Wernher von Braun (Full name Wernher Magnus Maximilian, Freiherr von Braun (1912-77), a man with the rare distinction of having the great satirist Tom Lehrer write a song about him.) Von Braun was born in a place called Wirsitz just before the Great war, a place which was then part of the German Empire but is today in Poland. Without going to a full explanation of what he did, von Braun became a rocket scientist who worked for the Nazis with his most famous work being the development of  the V-2 rockets, the world’s first ballistic missiles. Over 1400 were launched at Britain from Autumn 1944, and 500 hit London. The rockets weighed 13 tonnes and hit the ground at about 3000 mph, causing over 9000 deaths in the capital.  The worst strike came on 25th November when a V-2 hit a Woolworth’s store in New Cross, killing 168 people. The threat of the rockets was eventually neutralised as the Allies over-ran France, the Low Countries and evenetually Germany itself to secure victory in the west in early May, 1945. Wehner von Braun surrendered to American forces on 3rd May, 1945, and was soon in the USA continuing his work. The truth is that the Nazis loved rockets and were far ahead of any other country in their technological achievements and their developments they made would be central to the Space Race in the Cold War. After the war ended there was basically a carve up of the Nazi scientific community, some going to the USSR, others to the USA and some few to Britain. Luckily for NASA, Wernher von Braun made his way to the USA and was the man charged with sorting out the mess after the failed launch in December, 1957. The rise of the American space programme can really be traced back to the developments made by von Braun who went on to develop the Saturn rockets which would power the Apollo programme. The Space Race really was almost  a case of ‘our Nazi scientists against your Nazi scientists’ as they were central to the early developments in the USSR as well.

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Wernher von Braun in his NASA office in 1964. He is standing in front of a number of models of the Saturn rockets which powered the Apollo missions. (Author: NASA; Source: here)

The Soviet Union had deported some 6000-7000 people from Germany at the end of the war as a part of  ‘Operation Osoaviakhim’ which was designed to set up a rocket programme for Joseph Stalin. Recent records indicate that 177 of these were specifically engineers and scientists who had been part of the Nazi rockets programme. Men such as Helmut Gröttrup, an expert on the V-2s flight control system, were instrumental in setting up a Soviet rocket programme in the years after the war. Although Gröttrup and most of the other scientists returned to Germany by the early 1950s, they had a central role in establishing what became the Soviet rocket system.   They left the Soviet trained colleagues to continue the work. The USSR really led the space race during the 1950s and their achievements came simply by building rockets which were more reliable and more powerful than those developed by the USA. In 1959 they had even decided to aim for the moon, quite literally as it turned out. They built a rocket and launched it at the moon, to check that they could both launch something that powerful and to do it with the required accuracy to later travel to the moon. This happened on 12th-14th September 1959 – and the rocket landed just 84 seconds late according to calculations – all of which were made without computers in those days – not bad. This is a section from a report carried in the ‘New York Times’ about the event. It shows the fear and anxiety such events created.

U.S. Failures Recalled

“Some statements also compared the Soviet achievement to last year’s moon-shot failures in the United States. Still other commentators contended that the Soviet feat was made possible by rocket fuels and equipment superior to those of the United States.

But most of all, Soviet propaganda seized upon the event as being of special significance to the forthcoming Eisenhower-Khrushchev talks. The Soviet leader will arrive in Washington tomorrow at the dramatic height of world attention to the Soviet moon strike.

The Premier is certain to offer the event as proof of Soviet might, skill and determination to surpass the United States in all other fields of production and technology.”

Despite the improvement in NASA’s work, the next giant step was again taken by the USSR when, on 12th April, 1961, Yuri Gagarin (1934-1968) became the first man to travel into space. He was an officer in the USSR air force and he became a national and an international hero, another sign of Soviet power – and, being considered a rather handsome man, a pin up for many people. His flight lasted 108 minutes during which time he orbited the earth once. Gagarin’s achievement stunned the world and Khrushchev was keen to exploit the propaganda opportunities so he travelled the world promoting the Soviet system and receiving great acclaim. Sadly, he died in an air crash in 1968. Two years later, the USSR achieved another first when Valentina Tereshkova (b. 1937) became the first woman in space, a distinction she achieved on 16 June, 1963.

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Yuri Gagarin (Author: Unknown; Source: here)

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Valentina Tereshkova with one of the great sixties hairstyles (Author: Alexander Mokletsov; Source: here)

As with the situation in the immediate aftermath of Sputnik, Washington was desperate to respond to the extraordinary achievement that saw Gagarin orbit the earth in April 1961.  There was a response but in some ways, the journey made by Alan Shepherd (1923-98) on 5th May, 1961, only highlighted the gap that seemed to exist. Shepherd was brave but he could only travel using the rocket power available and he was not able to complete a full orbit of the earth, travelling little more than 100 miles on a 15 minute flight, but he was still lauded and treated as a hero on his return. The USA was making progress but was still seemed to be falling further behind the Soviet space programme. In 1971, Alan Shepherd did go one step further than Gagarin, though, by becoming the fifth man to walk on the moon. He also became the first man to hit a golf ball on the moon – and if anyone asks, he hit a 6 iron which went a very long way, apparently.

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Astronaut Alan Shepherd the first American in space (Author: NASA; Source: here)

It is important to remember what else was going on around the time of these events in the Space Race. The U2 spy plane incident, the building of the Berlin Wall, the Bay of Pigs Fiasco and the Cuban Missile Crisis, the assassination of JFK and a shift in sporting power at the Olympics were just some of the things that were happening as the struggle for supremacy in space was unfolding. These were high profile events that were causing major changes in the way the two sides viewed each other and the way they were perceived by other countries, especially the ‘new’ countries emerging in what was called the Third World . For the the USA, there was a belief in the need for containment of Communism, the continuation of the policy begun under Harry Truman. As Moscow kept grabbing the headlines and seemed to have the technological advantage, there was a very real fear in the West that these countries would choose to go with communism, seeing that as the way to better protection and a share in the ultimate victory. The developments of the Space Race were not some trivial sideshow; for the politicians, they had a huge impact on politics, technology, the arms race, war, negotiations and the media.

In the end, though, NASA and the USA was able to claim the greatest prize of the Space Race through the Moon landing on 20th July, 1969. The primary reasons for this are rooted in two things: the economy and technology. After Eisenhower’s decision to create NASA, the full weight of the economic machine was put behind the effort to develop the technology needed to catch up with the USSR. At the same time, the Arms Race was also in full flow and capitalism proved far more adept at meeting these twin demands than did Communism. For the USSR, Gagarin was really the high-point of its achievements, and from that point on they were not able to make the same progress. From 1963 onwards, there was a momentum shift towards the USA really because of its industrial might. In the USSR by contrast, the final years of Khrushchev’s time in power were marked by the realisation that the country was failing to develop industrially, and indeed, the whole system was in danger of collapse. The USSR faced many urgent needs and it had no chance of meeting them all: supporting the Red Army and developing nuclear weapons in the Arms Race, supporting its satellites in Eastern Europe through COMECON and doing something to raise the living standards of its own people were just some of the challenges to be met by an industrial system that was creaking at the seams. Industrially the country needed to invest and develop but the pressures were such that this was not possible because the re-structuring needed would mean that they ran the risk of falling further behind the USA, with a potentially catastrophic short-fall in military hardware being the result.  Instead of the re-structuring, some things got cut-back and it was the Space Race that suffered. While NASA was developing the Apollo programme as a response to the inspiration of Kennedy’s vision, the USSR was stagnating in its work which was not really surprising in a country which had food queues and shortages of even the most basic products for its people. Gagarin and Tereshkova might have gone into space but most ordinary Russians had no chance of getting a fridge or a car during the same decade.

The cost of the whole space programme was, indeed, extraordinary, and something that the USA was quite simply better able to handle than the less economically advanced Soviet Union. In the early days of computer technology, almost nothing was available to the USSR and the advantage increasingly lay with the USA as each new stage demanded more and more technological skill and development of resources. The overall cost of putting a man on the moon has been estimated at $150 billion in current values, a level of funding which the USSR could never match. In the long run, attempting to match the NASA programme, developing nuclear weapons, maintaining its huge army and supporting its Communist allies were all factors which contributed to the collapse of the USSR in the 1980s. However, the journey from Sputnik and Laika to Armstrong and Aldrin was far from smooth, even for the wealthiest country in history. There were many disasters and setbacks on the way, none more so than the explosions which cost many lives. The most famous and tragic disaster involved Apollo 1 which exploded on the launch pad at Cape Canaveral, Florida, in 1967 with the deaths of the three astronauts on board. When put alongside the loss of two Space Shuttles later on, it is a reminder of just how high the costs can be in undertaking space travel.

Overall, the balance of successes in the Space Race lay with Moscow until Apollo 11 pulled it out of the fire for the USA. On 20th July, 1969, Neil Armstrong (b. 1930), Edwin ‘Buzz’ Aldrin (b. 1930) and Michael Collins (b. 1930 – who was also the first Italian in space as he’d been born in Rome) achieved this feat together. Collins remained in the capsule while Armstrong and Aldrin landed and then, of course, walked on the moon. Don’t get distracted by all the conspiracy theories, shadows, wind, photos and everything else – if you want that, you’ll have to go somewhere else. It’s just worth noting the huge propaganda victory that it was, the way it saved NASA and seemed to restore American confidence in both the Space Race and the Cold War. With the assassinations of Martin Luther King and Bobby Kennedy, the chaos of the Vietnam War, violence linked with the Civil Rights Movement, the Black Power salutes of the Mexico Olympics and the shock of events like Woodstock, all tearing at ‘middle America, ‘The Eagle has landed’ was a boost that was desperately needed in Washington.

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One of those controversial photos from the moon landing: Buzz Aldrin and the US flag. If you want conspiracy theories about footprints, fluttering flags, shadows and where was the camera, then there is a load of stuff on the internet. 

And how interesting to note that ‘Man on the Moon’ was Jack Kennedy’s ‘dream’ but it was Richard Nixon who was there to shake hands with Armstrong, Aldrin and Collins. Funny how things happen sometimes.

 

Find out more

Books: ‘A Man on the Moon’ by Andrew Chaikin; ‘Space Race: The Battle to Rule the Heavens’ by Deborah Cadbury (Harper Perennial, 2007); ‘Epic Rivalry: The Inside Story of the Soviet and American Space Race’ by  Von Hardesty and Gene Eisman (National Geographic Society, 2007); ‘NASA: the Complete Illustrated History’, by Michael Gorn and Buzz Aldrin; ‘First Man: The life of Neil A. Armstrong’ by James Hansen (Pocket Books, 2006); ‘Carrying the Fire: An Astronaut’s Journeys’ by Michael Collins (Farrar, Straus and Giroux Ltd, 2009).

Film: ‘Apollo 13’ (Universal Pictures, 1995), ‘From the Earth to the Moon’ (HBO, 1998) and ‘In the Shadow of the Moon’ (Channel 4 DVD, 2007)

TV/DVD: ‘The Cold War’ by Jeremy Isaacs (CNN), especially Episode 8 ‘Sputnik’ but the whole series gives a context for the importance of the Space Race; ‘Discovery Channel: NASA’s Greatest Missions’ is a four box set which is a celebration of fifty years of NASA.

 

 

 

Richard Nixon: “There can be no whitewash in the White House”.

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Richard Nixon, 37th President of the USA, with Chinese Premier, Zhou Enlai, 1972. (Author: Unknown; Source: here)

Richard Nixon: “There can be no whitewash in the White House.”

“When the President does it, that means that it’s not illegal.” Richard M. Nixon

Watergate. No matter where you start when looking at the life of Richard Nixon (1913-1994), you end up back at ‘Watergate’. If you’ve ever wondered why the media always seem to stick the word ‘gate’ on the end of any scandal, then it’s down to Nixon and events between 1972 and 1974. (Actually, if you’ve ever wondered why there is someone called ‘Milhouse Van Houten’ in ‘The Simpsons’, I suggest that you look no further than Nixon, as that was his middle name – although he spelt it ‘Milhous’.) Nixon was involved in many other important events, like the Vietnam War and détente with the USSR and China, but we’ll leave those out of this section so as to concentrate on this central moment. Be warned here – you will need to be alert and ready to check out a number of other things if you want to understand what went on but it is worth it. Nixon is a fascinating character and his life reads as a modern parable, an insight into how power and obsession can corrupt and destroy the most capable people. First of all, a few pictures of our subject with some key people; Nixon knew everybody.

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Nixon as Vice-President to President Eisenhower (Author: White House; Source: here)

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Nixon and J. Edgar Hoover (Author: White House; Source: here )

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Nixon and Nikita Khrushchev (Author: NARA; Source: here)

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Nixon and Leonid Brezhnev (Author: Oliver F. Atkins; Source: here)

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Nixon and Mao Zedong (Author: White House; Source: here)

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Nixon and Elvis Presley (Author: Oliver F. Atkins ; Source: here)

 

‘Watergate’ was the name of a building or rather a complex of buildings in Washington DC, the US capital, which included the headquarters of the Democratic Party in the USA. It contained a hotel, apartment blocks, shops and offices, parts of which were used by the Democrats. (It’s worth noting that it’s in the ‘Foggy Bottom’ section of the city. Things like that don’t normally bother me, and I know it shouldn’t be funny, but somehow it is.) Anyway, in the summer of 1972, as the campaign for that year’s Presidential Election was getting underway, a group of men broke into Watergate. They were caught, tried and imprisoned but there was a slight problem: it was noticed that nothing had been stolen even though they had been in the building for some time. Although this seemed a little strange, the police did not seem too bothered and things looked set to drift away into a low level story. The story went quiet for a while but two journalists with ‘The Washington Post’, Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein, set about an investigation that eventually revealed one of the most important cover-ups in history. Their work led to the White House and to the Oval office itself, to the President. In simple terms, Richard Nixon had wanted to know exactly what Senator George McGovern and the Democrats planned to do so that he could match and beat their ideas, so guaranteeing victory. And to do this, he was willing to authorise criminal activity, oversee a major cover up to make sure it never came out and mislead the US Congress and the people in the process. It would eventually bring him down.
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The Watergate Complex, Washington, D.C.. (Author: Unknown; Source: here)

But why did Nixon do this in 1972? The answers to this question take us into the heart of one of the most fascinating politicians of the century as, on paper, it just did not make sense. In the summer of 1972, Nixon was miles ahead of McGovern in the polls. Nixon was walking towards a second term in office on the back of his foreign policy which had seen dramatic breakthroughs in relations with the Communist superpowers, both the USSR and China. The Democrats were in disarray after lots of in-fighting over several years, much of it linked with the Vietnam War and the rise of ‘issues’ to do with civil rights, feminism and gay rights. Senator George McGovern was chosen to fight Nixon but he was always trailing in the polls; he led a divided party and lacked support and credibility with the media and on the country. In November 1972, Nixon cruised to the expected and massive victory, winning 49 of the 50 states and receiving over 60% of the vote. The result was never in doubt, a landslide, and Nixon rode back into the White House on a high tide of public approval. Yet, less than two years later, in August 1974, Nixon would be forced to resign as he faced impeachment (being put on trial as President for lies, cover-ups and misleading congress) for spying on the Democrats. Why did he do it when he was so strong? Why had he taken such a risk when he held such a strong hand?

Although the above things are true, life is rarely simple especially when power is involved – and ego – and dreams – and fear – and status. History is usually shaped by people operating at the most basic human levels, and many powerful people are flawed, confused and as mixed up as the majority of people. History is often the equivalent of ‘dogs pissing up trees and blokes measuring their willies’, as it has been put, quite crudely but accurately. In other words, history is often about control and status: the control of territory and the status that comes from being more powerful than others. ‘Mine is bigger than yours, I control a bigger space than you…I am better than you and have more power than you…I am great.’ Basic it may be but Nixon fits these images rather well and the language he used was much stronger than ‘pissing’ and ‘willies’, I can tell you.

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Richard Nixon campaigning for re-election in 1972. (Author: Unknown; Source: here)

To understand why President Nixon, the most powerful man in the world, who was at the height of that power in 1972, should choose to take such a huge risk as to bug his rival’s offices requires some background. The truth is that many powerful people do not always feel powerful – or secure or in control. And at times, those in power also come to believe that they are beyond normal restrictions and rules, able to demand and get what they want as their extraordinary influence becomes ‘normal’, just a part of their job. Others in power need to push the boundaries and limits so as to get a ‘buzz’, an adrenalin rush, a sense of danger to fight off boredom or routine. Stars of sport, film and music often live lives of glamour that others envy and desire but it can simply become a routine – while at the same time being something fragile and easily lost. Some turn to drugs, others to sex, others to crime – the patterns are well established. Boredom and a desire to control are an interesting combination, especially when mixed with a desire for greatness, the wish to take what you have and make it a sort of monument to your achievements. Think of this as we look at Richard Nixon and Watergate.

Richard Nixon came from a poor Californian family. Born in 1913, he was a bright child growing up as one of four brothers. Two brothers, Arthur and Harold died young (Arthur aged 7 and Harold at 24). Harold’s death in particular hit Richard hard creating a passion for action, achievement, strength. His actions and behaviour were tinged with vulnerability and the sense that nothing could be taken for granted; death or other shocks could come from anywhere. Alongside this, the key influence in his life was his mother, Hannah Milhous Nixon, feeding his huge determination and commanding great loyalty as well as fear. Nixon’s upbringing as a Quaker was also significant, rather puritanical and based on strict values, so that the family had a hatred of drinking and swearing, both of which became rather important later on.

The young Nixon was a very bright student, winning a scholarship to the famous Harvard University which he could not take up because the family was so poor. This missed opportunity denied him a natural way forward in life and fed in to a sense of injustice and the idea of the world being against him. It was one of the things that would later feed in to his hatred of the posh, privileged, well-to-do East Coast families who had such influence in Washington. Those privileged classes would come to be epitomised by the Kennedy family from Massachusetts.

Despite the setback of not getting to Harvard, Nixon went to a local college and did very well although he had to carry on working at the family store. In 1934, he won a scholarship to Law School, eventually becoming a lawyer. He served in the Navy (just like the future President Jack Kennedy) during World War II before winning election to the House of Representatives in 1946. He was soon making a name for himself by becoming involved in one of the high-profile spy cases of the post-war era. Nixon joined the investigations of the HUAC (the House Un-American Activities Commission), looking into the accusations against Alger Hiss, whose story is worth knowing as it provides important background for the rise of Joe McCarthy.

Alger Hiss (1904-1996) was an official with the US Federal Government who had been involved in setting up the United Nations, amongst other things. In 1948 he was accused of being part of a Communist group which had infiltrated the government. Hiss denied it but was put on trial. He denied all charges. A document allegedly produced on his typewriter was presented as key evidence, although such a thing could quite easily have been faked. Hiss was eventually found guilty of perjury (lying and misleading the court) but not guilty of the actual charges. Hiss’s conviction came on 25th January, 1950, just two weeks before McCarthy would make his claim of wide scale Communist infiltration into the US Government. Hiss went to prison for nearly four years and his career was ruined, one of the fitives in 1946. He was soon making a name for himself by becoming involved in one of the high-profile spy cases of the post-war era. Nixon joined the investigations of the HUAC (the House Un-American Activities Commission), looking into the accusations againsHe was /> Unkt two weeks before McCarthy would make his claim of wide scale Communist infiltration into t whonthat would later ale rengdden msoed in setting upake hpewriteh1>


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Richard Nixon campaigning for re-election in 1972. (Author: Unknown; Source: here)

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Richard Nixon campaigning for re-election in 1972. (Author: Unknown; Source: here)

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Richard Nixon campaigning for re-election in 1972. (Author: Unknown; Source: here)

To understand Mbotar-t Thatcr / "esig"ed as Prihe Mrgister ase le / / of H8y Margerv>) ty dEx22se n,vember, 1990. Un

; H8yy r / ac Unto pow / oExr / own terms. Few peop-orw /e ierstfer--tnto r / Locl ase it is ieterest> Unthat John Major, r / suc ase attitude.Mrs. Thatcr / inr /iLed a country dExH8y verge of sanlapse in H8y ‘Wieter of Disct[endt’ wked H8y Labour G,vern Ree ris g,vern Unam:Lse" Unrel>Richship with H8y Mammugistrworld, r / frie"dship with Ronald Reagan ase r / pres--[i dExH8y world s/age. Howover, it is ieterest> Untonremember that one of H8y ainal th> Us with whichrsre was associ>Ree, tr ie.coous ‘Panl Tax’, was itself a sig" sre r /self r / becohe ou: of touchrwith H8y major Baw:Lwss Thatcr / died in Aascl, 2013, at tr age of 87. H / extraorhanary a /> le, fami that sre was fa/ lwss posin-vonthan r / support /s claim ase fa/ lwss negan-vonthatxr / opponndtsrwould have us th> k. Mayby more importaw: was tr per Unase victorynin H8y SouthrAtlasn-c; r / appearance as a play / oExH8y world s/age whichrremiered peop-onof a new Churchi-l;nase H8y way sre exured self"sanf Lonce ase determ;">Rich. ;s/w:Ls>Fise out more
;s/w:Ls>Bd-ss:eas/w:Ls> ‘Mbotar-t Thatcr /: The Authorford Bionhidey, VoluherOne: n,t Fo/ TuerGro’ bm Chrgm; aMoore (Allew Lann, 2013) is very hifa-y regarred ase sans Lored byrmany cr ‘Mbotar-t Thatcr /’
byrJohn Ci/>be-l is anotr / extreme-y pow /emiHbionhideynin Hwo voluhes (‘The Groc /’s Daught /’ ase ‘The IrdExcady’ (Vietage, 2007). Works byrMbotar-t Thatcr / r /self inclure ‘The Path Ho Pow /’ (Harper Prwss, 2012) ase ‘The Down> UnStre-t Years’ (Harper Prwss, 2012).FiH a ratr / ditfer--tnins falsdExH8y Thatcr / years, Alas Cla/ke’s diari:s a/e we-l worthrre /> U: ‘Diari:s: Id Pow /, 1983-1992’ byrAlas Cla/ke (Phoenix, 2003);s/w:Ls>TV: ‘The Rise ase Focl of Mbotar-t Thatcr /’
ct[eains Hwo we-l refaived playsrmare byrH8y BBC. They a/e ficRichal but ct[eain;s/w:Ls>S:Lse:eas/w:Ls> Many s-ses produ0"d music whichrreflected thy ect[omic ase polin-cal cosein-lef of H8y 1980s, as we-l asrreflect> UndExH8y Falklase’s Wa/. U,rwith soveral be> Unfolk soLse, inclure: The Speci>ls – ‘Ghoe" Un– ‘Whichrs Lo a/e youndE?’, ‘Thatcr /iLes’, ‘Islase of no r-tuer’, ‘Th /e is pow / in a un-le’; Mbot> Cirthyn– ‘p"/>;s/w:Ls>Film: ‘The IrdExcady’

Richard Nixon campaigning for re-election in 1972. (Author: Unknown; Source: here)

(2011). MerylnStre-p’s portrayal of Mrs. Thatcr / was sans Lored remse"ow-oralH8ough H8y ailm itself div Lod opin-le. It does not really d al with H8y issuef of H8y tiherbut may be of ieterest fiH its ies fals oExr / valu-s, attitudes ase go>ls.   ;s/w:Ls>A sport> Unmo If younlikonfootball, tr .coous Mboadcha ‘Hase of Goe’ go>lnin H8y quart / ainalf of H8y Mexico World Cupnin 1986 panks very muchrwith H8y Falklases’ Wa/.ce ase hum/> an-le of defeat. The bl>Ra-tncheat> Undf H8y airst go>lnfollmiee byrH8y bscl> a-[i df H8y sect[e, one byrMboadcha’s >lnfamiee Mboadcha was sloverer than H8y English ase H8y sect[e was tr subliherexi/>le prodf H8atxr was more skilemiHthan H8ym, too. That day in H8y AztecanStae" lef of Aggesn-ne’s very happy indeed. The resulr was a 2-1 win fiH Aggesn-na, byrH8y way. Gary L-nek /, H8y man with grey> Unhair who pres--ts ‘Matcr df H8y Day’ got Englase’s go>l; r used Ho be very good.; mso-para-margw:AlwaysShowPlaceh/>
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UUsed="falseargin-top:0cm; ed="falseamargin-right:0cm; mso-para-marg10]>why Pr

Richard Nixon campaigning for re-election in 1972. (Author: Unknown; Source: here)

To understand The adul>Rich fiH Mboadcha in Aggesn-na is based dExmore than H8is one game, of saurse,rbut 8is Hwo go>ls, one through ‘guile’, tr otr / through gesius, caherto embody soheth> U importaw: fiH many Aggesn-nes. Unone of H8y argticula/ hifa- fals. His achievem--ts gave rope ase sanf Lonce to mcl> lef of Aggesn-ne’s ase H8y/e is no doibl H8atxa lagge argt of H8yirrjoyncaherbecause 8y bsough: sucr a .coous victorynagainst Englasenjust fiu/ years afterxH8y Falklase’s Wa/.   ; m der .entry-ct[endt nd P P P

P Posted in: Canflicts, Europe, Polin-cal le / /s, Protests, Soci>l Figures, Terrii-sm, USA, USSR \ Tagged: 1970s, 1980s, 1990s, Aggesn-na, Agthug Scbottll, 31"d Wa/, Falklases' Wa/, Geoffrey Howo, Geogge H. W. Bush, IRA, Leonid Brezhnev, Mbotar-t Thatcr /, Mikhail GorbaIndv, Min /s'nStrike, Pope John Ptul II, Ronald Reagan, Ted Heath, H8y EU, UK, USA, USSR P
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post type-post statug>publish fiHmat-s/ae/are r ntry category-ctmmugism category-ctnflicts category-europe category-protests category-sport category-ussr ; g-1940s ; g-adclf-he:0;r ; g-sand-war ; g-sammugism ; g-fc-s/art ; g-football ; g-germany ; g-joseph-s/alin H g-peonid-brezhnev H g-nazism ; g-nikitamkhrushIndv ; g-ukn ine ; g-ussr ; g-world-war-ii" P P

FCnStart:xH8y USSR figalsHback ienWorld Wa/ II.

P August 19, 2013 6:07 pm \
; m .entry-heta nd P P P
P

FCnStart:xH8y USSR figalsHback ienWorld Wa/ II.

p>To em>‘In frow: of Unhum/> aned ase without bow"Li down to asyonn.’ ;s/w:Ls>Mbkar G,nchrgenko, play / fiH FCnStart.
History is a coh>lex topic asetihes. How do younknow d/ trust infiHmatich if younw /ee’t tr /e? L-t’s fe=e it, moe" U,rthat H8y issue of ieterasetatich isnjust about H8y moe"licated th> Untonsans Lor wked ‘doGro’ ristory. It makes th> Us fnownnat> Unase santroversi>l as we-l asreefur> Unthat the debates ase botum--ts about what happened ase why H8yy r ppened wi-l, inrmany cas-s, never be decided. This is H8y cas" fiH moe" Unso lintle byrway of sa/eful, detaInde asalysis fiH moe"lly H8ose of H8y distaw: past. Pre-histor-c U,ras we-l asrieteraset> U,rthe Unwhy wars, sucr as H8y Great Wa/,rtheOno a/ea of prgticula/ ieterest in 8istor-cal oventW is Ho do with lege"ds. ae’ a/e just that. The/e may be a germ of Hruthrin H8ym, mayby quite a lot of Hruth, but tr y get chrns d in H8y "e-l> Unso muchrthat they lose asy crediw-orsannecRichnto H8- iHiginal ase boe, as sucr, unbeliev lin Unhgthu/, Robin Hood d/ Dracula, wh /e H8y real persdExmay r ve existed but H8y stor-:s that grow up a/ound H8ym cohento obscu/e H8y Hruth. History is full of myths ase lege"ds H8atxrave t8y pow / to sr pe our lrnsuage, beliefs ase bcn-lef to H8is day;none only haf to ld-siat the obswss-lef with H8y Locr Nwss Margi /, H8y Yet>, UFOs ase H8ynregula/ forecastf of AgmagedddExpankee with sohenascindt prophecy Ho seonthatxsucr stor-:s setaiExH8yi/ ie.lu--[i dExmany peop-o.Lege"ds develop fiH various reasdEs. They can b used Ho explainran attitude d/ belief; tr y can b used Ho just>fyran acn-le; tr y otfer panks to oHigins ase Lontiti:s df peop-os ase ">Richs; tr y m"falsexplainrwhy H8> Us have gone ww:Ls in H8y past ase so make dem-ses chntoday;ntr y can g-vonpeace ase hope to peop-orwho a/e sutfer> U. Lege"ds a/e pow /emiHstor-:s ase H8yy cannot b ignored byr8istor-ZrW nor dismisseenjust because they a/e not ‘true’. To do this is Ho ignore t8y pow / ase H8ynpurpose df H8y story. It is importaw: that they a/e recognised as argt of a cul=ure ase H8ynrexi/ined Ho explainrwhat they say about H8at cul=ure, H8y peop-orase H8yntiherfrom whichrH8yy developed. The aacn that they a/e believed ase valu-d is an wssential argt of H8ynlege"d.rOne only haf to ld-siat the many refer--[if to Robin Hood in H8y l falsdf H8ynbank> Unase ect[omic crisis df 2008nto H8- pres--t day iH tr pow / df Dracula Ho inspire t8y huge-y suc[ifsemiH‘Twi- fal’ T8y difficulty of dist> Uuish> Unaacn from ficRich is not just a th> Unof H8y deep past. The/e are many eventW of more refalsetihes whichr8 ve :een open to great debate with issuef about just what happened be> Unvery difficult Ho discern. Id sohenways, H8y story behise every Hrial H8at comes Ho saurt, every polin-cian who rises Ho pow /, every acn of Herrii iH wa/, is dpen to som" fiHm of ieterasetatich ase opin-le. Thesy ieterasetatichs a/e based dExselect> UnH8y Hruth, hifa- fal> Unsohent8> Us overrotr /s,rexiggerat> UnH8y good d/ i-l iExH8y work of sortainrfigures ase draw"Li sortainrhessages ase sansequ--[isnoverrotr /s. With in"e-l>g--[i, sa/e ase determ;">Rich,nt8> Us can b agre-d ase reasdEaw-orsanclus-lef drawnn– but Ho be a ‘gooe’ 8istor-Zr is a moe"Ono prgticula/ event comes Ho mise as an exi/>le of H8is chrllewg:. It is quite an obscu/e event id sohenways but one whichr8 s becohenfa/ betterxknown id refalseyears, root d in a game of football ;hat td-siple=e in Kidv, Ukn ine,nin 1942. The matcr happened dur> UnWorld Wa/ II ase nspiree a Hungar-Zr ailm crllee ‘Kén félidő a pokans-s’, or, ‘TwonHalf-Tihes in He-l’ from 1962. Id 1981, this iExHurn nspiree a Hollywood ailm, ‘Escape to Victory’, whichrremse"ow-y cast the Rambo actor, SylvosterxStrllonn, aloLse Lo som" fcoous football /s,rinclur> UnPe-orase BobbyrMoore. As r ppened with asotr / fcoous war ailm, ‘T8y Great Escape’, tr Hruthrgot ratr / Hwse"-d ase som" peop-orcaherto believenthat the ailm really was a aacnual account of a true event with Braz/> ans,rEnglish, Scottish, Ahe/ican ase Aggesn-ne prisdEers som"how coh> Untogeth / to defeat a team of German soldi /s. Furtr / filmsr8 ve :een mare about H8y game, a refalseexi/>le be> Una Russ-Zr one ontitlee ‘Matcr’. It was re-oaseenjust before t8y EuropeZr Football Chi/>-lefhip df 2012 whichrwas joidtly hosted by Panase bse H8ynUkn ine. This prgticula/ ailm cutsnto H8- hergt of H8yndifficulty of seargit> UnH8y aacn from the aicRich asrit portrayee H8ynUkn in-Zr play /s in a very differ--t l falsfrom that of ‘Escape to Victory’, fiH exi/>le. Whe/eas H8atxailm hadnfamin H8y play /s to be he/oes against H8yi/ opponentW, ‘Matcr’ portrayee H8ynUkn in-Zrs asrNaz/ sy/> Unbeyose H8y lege"d is incrediw-y difficult.; mso-para-margw:AlwaysShowPlaceh/>
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UUsed="falseargin-top:0cm; ed="falseamargin-right:0cm; mso-para-marg10]>why Pr

Richard Nixon campaigning for re-election in 1972. (Author: Unknown; Source: here)

To understand ="pan style="f 150%;"> ="s6IBbid.google

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Hy/e is a versUnh df H8y story df H8y now fcoous ‘Death Matcr’. It famis H8at, despite what som" peop-orsay, sport really can b importaw: ase n.lu--tial fiH a ">Rich. This versUnh en="falses tr posin-ve from the play /s bse H8ynUkn in-Zr p /spect>ve. It famis how a team of local fiotball /s caused UnH8y Ukn ine,nby refus> Untonsapitul>Re to H8yir dem-ses that they famuld stop be> Unso gooe. Evnn H8ough H8 y w /e thenourished, hadnlintle byrway of properxki: ase hadnlintle chrnce to pracn-se, H8yse play /s rZr r> Us a/ound H8y ‘s/ars’ of H8yirrm/> /ary opponentW, hum/> an> UnH8ym in H8y pro[ifs. As we wi-l see, it wmuld all e"d in Hragedy but why die H8yse mynrevnn find H8ymselvos play> Unaootball against H8y elite f="0"W of H8y German army in H8y dw:LhW of H8y wa/ ienKidv dur> Untho summ / df 1942?FCnStart was a aootball ;eam in Kidv, in H8y Ukn ine,nnot fa/ from Che/nobyl wh /e H8y nuslear disasterxdf 1986 r ppened. They play d fiH just one aeasdE dur> UnWorld Wa/ II ase H8 y beat everyonn H8 y play d: play d 9, won 9, 58 go>ls scored,g10rsanceded. Thyirs is a story df Hrue he/oism ase ski-l but it is sti-l rea>) Unsucr posin-ve talef about peop-orwho w /e unLor Cammugist santrol afterxH8y wa/ was just not the ‘done’nt8> U.T8y k y figure behise FCnStart ;eam was a man by H8y name of Iosif Kordik,rwho santrolled dEe df H8y local bakspaes, in Kidv, whichrwas H8y capital c-th. The Ukn ine hadn:een invaded by H8y Wehrmacht f="0"W, H8y German Army, as a argt of ‘Operat>on Barba/ossa’. Kidv itselfrwas occupi d in mid-Sw:Lember, 1941.rOne day, Kordik bump d into oEe df 8is he/oes, a aootballerxcrllee Nikolaï Trusevich. Trusevich hadn:een H8y goalkeep / fiH Dynamo Kidv before World Wa/ II ase, now H8atxre hadnreHurnee hoherfrom a prisdEer df wa/ camp, wh /e he hadn:een held afterxbe> Unca> ured by H8y GermanW, herwas in ne-d of a job. Kordik invited him Ho saherto work fiH him at H8y imtt;">Rive-y titlee, ‘Bakspyrn,. 3’. T8y German guards hadnacnual-y re-oaseenTrusevich ase otr / Russ-Zr soldi /snso that they die not have to spese Hime ase resour0"W guard> UnH8ym; H8 y w /e re-oaseenwith no pap /snso that they ctuld not get any work, fiod d/ accommodatich ase w /e H8yrefore expected to starve d/ freeze to death. It was a solutich whichrwtuld be cheap / than guard> Unase fe-d> UnH8ym.Within a famrt pescie, several otr / fort / football /s hadngatr /-d at Bakspyrn,. 3, moe" Unplay d fiH Hwonriv>ls before t8y wa/: Dynamo Kidv ase LokomAniv Kidv. When H8y German Wehrmacht,rwho santrolled t8ynregich,nput Hogeth / a aootball -oague to g-vonH8ymselvos, ase otr / soldi /snfrom Hungary ase Romania, som"th> Untondo, the play /s bt H8ynbakspyrw /e rllowed Ho ent=" a team ase H8 y td-siH8y name ‘FCnStart’. Naz/ supescii-th was expected to be famin overrH8yirrm/> /ary rll-:s as we-l asrH8y local popul>Rich.;a href="http://elfman.co.uk/wp-ct[endt/uploads/424px-Death_matcr_bi-l.jpg"> <-th="424px-Death_matcr_bi-l" 8" /> ="pan style="f northe;">;s/w:Ls>Tr post=" advern-s> Untho ‘Death Matcr’ between FCnStart ase Flakslf.
="gning for 9-elec">(Author: Unknown; Sour0": ="gning for 9-elec">he/e ="gning for 9-elec">) T8y local play /s w /e rlways samrt of fooe, tiree from work> Unshiftf of up to 24 hou/s bse inrfea/ forrH8yirrl-vosnbecause of Ukn in-Zr infiHm /s to H8ynNaz/s. They laptio properxki:,rwyar> Uncut down t/ous /s bse work sames inst=ad of boots. They w /e not allowed Ho in in eitr /, alH8ough H8 y w /e so maenourished that this was not theirrbiggest problym. The/e w /e sescius doubts in H8y "eam about wheth / they famuld acnual-y play d/ not. It td-sia bpaef speechrby Trusevich to decide H8y issue. By ctinc Lonce, a set of ree woollennshirts hadn:een found a aew days earl-:r. Hold> UndEe df H8ym, hersaidnto H8- itr /s,r‘We do not have any weaplef but we can figalnwith our victori:s dn H8y aootball pitcr…we wi-l play in H8y colou/s df our flag. T8y Fnownstf famuld know H8atxH8is colou/ can never be defeated.’ They all c8ose to play.;a href="http://elfman.co.uk/wp-ct[endt/uploads/nikolai-trusevich.jpg">p>To s/w:Ls>Nikolaï Trusevichn– Goalkeep / fiH FCnStart in 1942 ="gning for 9-elec oogle.com/lh '/photo/','rong>) here)(Author: Unknown; Sour0": ="gning for 9-elec oogle.com/lh '/photo/','rong>) here)he/e ="gning for 9-elec oogle.com/lh '/photo/','rong>) here))From thei/ airst matcr, FCnStart w /e H8y outs/ae/> Unside in H8y comp tin-le, overcoh> Unt8yi/ phys-cal problyms thanks to great ski-l, tacn-cs bse Heamwork. Victory afterxvictory followed but H8> Us got toughor wked H8 y beat PGS, a German garrisdE Heam, 6-0 in July, 1942. This was simp-y not supposednto rappen asrit hum/> aned H8y German play /s bse H8yn‘syst=m’ whichrsaw H8ym as supesciinto H8- local peop-o. Sport really was supposednto fami Aryan Us w /e not go> Untonplan.rOn 6th August, FCnStart w /e Ho fe=e t8yi/ toughost chrllewg: against ‘Flakslf’, ‘t8y Flak Elevnn’, a newly fort e Heam from the German Luftwaffe. It incluree som" pilotf but more play /s caherfrom the anti-aircraft groups a/ound Kidv. They wnh easily, 5-1. But immediate-y afterxH8y matcr, anreHurn aix=ure was arrrns d forrH8y follow> UnSunday, 9th August: it wmuld becohentho ‘Death Matcr’.A larg: crowdngatr /-d forrH8y matcr. It began with Flakslf g-v> Untho Naz/ salute ase srout> Un‘Heil Hitler!’ ThenUkn in-Zrs hadn:een orrerednto do H8- saherbyran SS otficor wko spoke to H8ym before t8y matcr in H8y chrns> Unrooms. But as H8yy slow-y raised t8yi/ h-ses, tr y put thei/ aistsnto H8-i/ chosts bse gave t8y cry df H8y Red Army: ‘Fizcult Hura!’ (literally, ‘Phys-cal Cul=ure, Hooray!’ but betterxin nslates as ‘L:Ls l-vo sport!’). Not surpris> Uly, H8ynNaz/s w /e fuscius.T8y saherSS otficor wko hadnorrerednthemnto g-vonH8y Naz/ salute was to be t8ynrefer-e forrH8y matcr. The play /s hadn:een advisednto throw H8y game forrH8yirrown safety but asrH8y game s/artee H8 y decided just to play. Chiof broke out sonh enough asrH8y refer-e ignored all fouls by Flakslf evnn wked H8 FCnStart goalkeep /, H8ynfcoous Trusevich, was dehoterate-y kiptio in H8y LsdE. Flakslf td-siH8y l=ad while herwas sti-l dazed. But FCnStart wtuld not g-vonin ase H8 y s/wuck bapt, scor> Unwith a loLs srot before asotr / play /, Maka/ Gonchrrenko, dribbled a/ound H8y wkole Flakslf team to fcore a s/unrGro goal, even as H8yy tr-:d to grab him and kipt him from behise. Ant8>rd goal before half-Hime saw FCnStart in santrol df H8y matcr. The Naz/s w /e, to sayiH8y l=ast, unrappy.Dur> Unhalf-Hime, H8ynSS otficor ase b Ukn in-Zr collaboratorrreHurnee to H8- chrns> Unrooms to b .h warn ase H8reaten H8y play /s that they ctuld not, ase must not, win H8y game. Sescius sansequ--[isnw /e H8reatenio if they die win. However, in H8y sect[dnhalf,nt8> Us w /e muchrquietor ase b .h sides scored Hwsce, l=av> UnFCnStart 5-3 up. Theh,ntowards H8y ese df H8y game, dEe df H8y Start ;eam, andefenLor crllee Klimenko, dribbled a/ound H8y wkole df H8y Flakslf defence, walse/ound H8y goalkeep / up to H8y goal-pan but refusednto fcore ase, inst=ad, herHurnee to kipt H8ynba-l bapt Howards H8y half-way line. It was H8y ul=imtte hum/> an>nh df H8y German "eam asxH8is ‘sub-human’ Ukn in-Zr could c8oose not to fcore against H8ymn– ase sti-l win. T8y wkistlerwas blown early to savy Flakslf furtr / embarrrss UnFCnStart ase mock> Untho GermanW. Som"th> Unhadnto be done.T8y local Naz/ l=ad /s decided what to do but waited untilnFCnStart hadnplay d bse woExH8yi/ final matcr, 8-0, to win H8y -oague. They tked Hurnee up at Bakspyrn,. 3 ase roundee up all df H8y play /s. They w /e takshnto H8- SS LsdEquarters bse inHerrigatio in H8y Lope that they wmuld admit Ho beiLs involv d in act>viti:s against H8y GermanW but none die so.rOne of H8y "eam,nt8ough, Korotkykh, was exposednas a member of H8y NKVD,xStrlin’s SecreH Pansce, wked 8is sist=" told H8- SS: herwas tor ured and killee. As H8- itr /s refusednto b/eak, H8 y w /e sent off to labou/ camps wh /e several of H8ym died by be> Unclubbednto death ase H8ynrsrot through H8 LsdE. Thr-e of H8ose wko died w /e executednas reHributich fiH a prgtisan attapt ch a local factory.rOne in H8r-e of H8ose held at H8y SireHz Camp w /e executednase H8 y incluree H8 Lsdgt of H8ynFCnStart ;eam: Ivan Kuzmenko, H8yi/ giaw: s/wiksp; Alexi Klimenko, H8ynyoungndefenLor wko hadndribbled a/ound H8y Flakslf team before refus> Untonfcore;nase Nikolai Trusevich, H8y g/eat goalkeep / bse H8ynman who brought H8y "eam Hogeth / afterxgo> Untonwork at Bakspyrn,. 3. Som" of H8y "eam die survive H8y wa/ but then fe=ed H8ynbacklash of H8ose wko saw H8ym as collaborators fiH play> Unaootball with H8y enimy.rWorst was H8y H8reat posednby JosephxStrlin wko sent so many fort / prisdEers df wa/ ase s>viliaef wko hadnsantacn with H8y Naz/s to H8- GulaUs or death afterx1945.T8y full story df FCnStart was supprwssed forrmany years ase only came out in 1959, loLs afterxStrlin’s death, ase it is really down to HwonSoviet l=ad /s that it r ppened. Nikita Khrushchov ase Leonie Brezhndv, who was himselfrb Ukn in-Zr, w /e instr> Unthat H8y remse"ow-e story df FCnStart found a wiLor audie-ce. It was a argt of ‘pee=eemiHcoexist=-ce’ really, an exi/>le of he/oism ase human eseurance, as we-l asrski-l, in H8y fe=e of fea/ ase hatred. ForrKhrushchov ase Brezhndv, H8y witnwss df FCnStart was an exi/>le of anti-Naz/sm from within Cammugism, ansign to H8- world df H8y strength of H8yirrsyst=m bse way of life.Today, a mon> Undf FCnStart. He died in 1996, but four years earl-:r, herspoke of H8y "eam bse H8yn‘Death Matcr’. He die not see any of H8y "eam bs he/oes, not even H8ose wko died. Forrhim, H8 y w /e just ord> ary peop-orcaught up in a bru:al wa/, a wa/ that saw H8at saw H8e popul>Rich of Kidv fall from 400 000 to 80 000. 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Richard Nixon campaigning for re-election in 1972. (Author: Unknown; Source: here)

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UUsed="falseargin-top:0cm; ed="falseamargin-right:0cm; mso-para-marg10]>why Pr

Richard Nixon campaigning for re-election in 1972. (Author: Unknown; Source: here)

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Augue" 2013;a href='http://elfman.co.uk/2013/05/' le:0;='May 2013'>May 2013 P

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